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Òðåòüèì âàæíåéøèì äåìîêðàòè÷åñêèì îðãàíîì ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ñòðîÿ Àôèí áûë íàðîäíûé ñóä (ãåëèýÿ). Àðèñòîòåëü èçó÷àâøèé ïîëèòè÷åñêîå óñòðîéñòâî ãðå÷åñêèõ ãîðîäîâ-ãîñóäàðñòâ, âèäåë â ó÷ðåæäåíèè íàðîäíîãî ñóäà ðåøàþùèé øàã ê óñòàíîâëåíèþ äåìîêðàòèè â Àôèíàõ.

Èçâåñòíûé ôðàíöóçñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé äåÿòåëü, èñòîðèê è ëèòåðàòîð Àëåêñèñ äå Òîêâèëü åùå â 1835 ãîäó ïîäìåòèë, ÷òî íåäîñòàòêè è ñëàáîñòè äåìîêðàòè÷åñêîãî ïðàâëåíèÿ, ëåãêî âèäíû, îíè äîêàçûâàþòñÿ î÷åâèäíûìè ôàêòàìè (ñëîæíîñòü ïðèíÿòèÿ ðåøåíèé, äëèòåëüíûå îáñóæäåíèÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî âîïðîñà è ò.ä.), òîãäà êàê åãî áëàãîòâîðíîå âëèÿíèå ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ íåçàìåòíûì, ñêðûòûì îáðàçîì. Íåäîñòàòêè åãî ïîðàæàþò ñ ïåðâîãî æå ðàçà, à åãî õîðîøèå êà÷åñòâà óçíàþòñÿ òîëüêî ñ òå÷åíèåì âðåìåíè. Îäíàêî ïðè âñåõ ñâîèõ íåäîñòàòêàõ íàñòîÿùàÿ äåìîêðàòèÿ îñòàâëÿåò âîçìîæíîñòü ñìåíèòü òî ïðàâèòåëüñòâî, êîòîðîå íå óìååò óïðàâëÿòü íà áëàãî âñåãî íàðîäà.

 àíòè÷íîì îáùåñòâå ãðàæäàíñêèìè ïðàâàìè ïîëüçîâàëèñü íåìíîãèå, ðàâåíñòâî ïðàâ è îáÿçàííîñòåé ïðèçíàâàëîñü òîëüêî âíóòðè ñîîáùåñòâà ãðàæäàí. Âåëèêà áûëà ñòåïåíü êîíòðîëÿ îáùåñòâà íàä ÷àñòíîé æèçíüþ èíäèâèäà. Òåððèòîðèÿ ãîðîäà-ãîñóäàðñòâà íå äîëæíà áûëà ðàñøèðÿòüñÿ, èíà÷å íåâîçìîæíûì ñòàëî áû ëè÷íîå ó÷àñòèå êàæäîãî ãðàæäàíèíà â íàðîäíîì ñîáðàíèè. Çíà÷èò è ÷èñëî ïîëíîïðàâíûõ ãðàæäàí íå äîëæíî óâåëè÷èâàòüñÿ ñâûøå íåêîòîðîãî ïðåäåëà. Ïðèíöèïû è èíñòèòóòû Àôèíñêîé äåìîêðàòèè îêàçàëèñü íåïðèåìëåìûìè â óñëîâèÿõ ïîÿâëåíèÿ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ îáðàçîâàíèé, ðàñïðîñòðàíÿâøèõ ñâîþ âëàñòü íà îáøèðíûå òåððèòîðèè. È âñå æå ìíîãèå ñèìâîëû ñîâðåìåííîé äåìîêðàòèè ïðèøëè â íîâóþ èñòîðèþ èç Àôèí. Ïîíÿòèÿ âåðõîâíîãî çàêîíà, ðàâåíñòâî ãðàæäàí ïåðåä çàêîíîì, ðàâåíñòâî ïîëèòè÷åñêèõ ïðàâ ñòàëè íåîòúåìëåìîé ÷àñòüþ äåìîêðàòè÷åñêîé òðàäèöèè.

Âïåðâûå òåðìèí "äåìîêðàòèÿ" âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ó ãðå÷åñêîãî èñòîðèêà Ãåðîäîòà.  èñòîðèþ îáùåñòâåííîé ìûñëè è ïîëèòè÷åñêóþ íàóêó ýòî ïîíÿòèå äîëãîå âðåìÿ âõîäèëî ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â òîì ïîíèìàíèè, êîòîðîå áûëî äàíî åìó äðåâíåãðå÷åñêèì ìûñëèòåëåì Àðèñòîòåëåì. Îí, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ïðåäëîæèë ðàçëè÷àòü ôîðìû ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óñòðîéñòâà ïî äâóì ïðèçíàêàì: ïî òîìó â ÷üèõ ðóêàõ íàõîäèòñÿ âëàñòü, è êàê ýòà âëàñòü èñïîëüçóåòñÿ-"ïðàâèëüíî" of èëè "íåïðàâèëüíî".  ìîíàðõèè âëàñòü ïðèíàäëåæèò îäíîìó ÷åëîâåêó - ìîíàðõó, ãîñóäàðþ; â àðèñòîêðàòèè âëàñòü íàõîäèòñÿ â ðóêàõ íåìíîãèõ - "ëó÷øèõ"; â ïîëèòèè óïðàâëÿþò âñå èëè áîëüøèíñòâî ãðàæäàí. Òàêîâû, ïî Àðèñòîòåëþ, ôîðìû ãîñóäàðñòâà "ïðàâèëüíûå".  íèõ âëàñòü èñïîëüçóåòñÿ íà áëàãî âñåõ ãðàæäàí, â èíòåðåñàõ îáùåñòâà â öåëîì. "Íåïðàâèëüíûå" of ôîðìû ãîñóäàðñòâà-òå, ïðè êîòîðûõ ñòîÿùèå ó âëàñòè ëþäè äåéñòâóþò â ñîáñòâåííûõ èíòåðåñàõ, íå çàáîòÿñü î áëàãå ñîãðàæäàí. Ê "íåïðàâèëüíûì" of ôîðìàì îòíîñÿòñÿ: "òèðàíèÿ-ìîíàðõè÷åñêàÿ âëàñòü, èìåþùàÿ â âèäó âûãîäû îäíîãî ïðàâèòåëÿ; îëèãàðõèÿ áëþäåò âûãîäû ñîñòîÿòåëüíûõ ãðàæäàí; äåìîêðàòèÿ-âûãîäû íåèìóùèõ".  äàëüíåéøåì ïîíÿòèå äåìîêðàòèè áûëî îòíåñåíî ê "ïðàâèëüíîé" of ôîðìå ãîñóäàðñòâà-ïîëèòèè, à çà "íåïðàâèëüíîé ôîðìîé ïðàâëåíèÿ óòâåðäèëîñü ïîíÿòèå îõëîêðàòèè, ÷òî îçíà÷àåò "âëàñòü òîëïû", ÷åðíè, íå ñäåðæèâàåìîé íèêàêèìè çàêîíàìè.

Ïåðâîé èñòîðè÷åñêîé ôîðìîé äåìîêðàòèè áûëà àíòè÷íàÿ äåìîêðàòèÿ. Îíà äîñòèãëà êëàññè÷åñêèõ ôîðì â Äðåâíèõ Àôèíàõ, ãîðîäå-ãîñóäàðñòâå. Âðåìÿ íàèáîëüøåãî ìîãóùåñòâà Àôèí è âûñøàÿ òî÷êà ðàçâèòèÿ äåìîêðàòèè ïðèõîäÿòñÿ íà ýïîõó Ïåðèêëà.  âåê Ïåðèêëà (5â. äî í.ý.) èíñòèòóòû àôèíñêîé äåìîêðàòèè îòëè÷àëà íàèáîëüøàÿ çàâåðøåííîñòü. Âåðõîâíàÿ âëàñòü â Àôèíàõ ïðèíàäëåæàëà ðåãóëÿðíî ñîçûâàþùåìóñÿ íàðîäíîìó ñîáðàíèþ. Îíî ðåøàëî âñå âîïðîñû, îòíîñèâøèåñÿ ê âíóòðåííåé è âíåøíåé ïîëèòèêå ãîñóäàðñòâà: âûáèðàëî äîëæíîñòíûõ ëèö îïðåäåëÿëî ðàçìåð íàëîãîâ è ïîðÿäîê ðàñõîäîâàíèÿ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ñðåäñòâ. Ïðàâî ó÷àñòèÿ â íàðîäíîì ñîáðàíèè èìåë êàæäûé ãðàæäàíèí, äîñòèãøèé äâàäöàòèëåòíåãî âîçðàñòà, ïîýòîìó àôèíñêàÿ äåìîêðàòèÿ íàçûâàåòñÿ "ïðÿìîé äåìîêðàòèåé".

The state can correspond to the characteristic democratic only in the conditions of the created civil society. This state has to adhere to strictly set limits of intervention in economic and spiritual life which provide freedom of enterprise and cultures. As the democratic state providing common interests of the people enters, but at unconditional observance and protection of the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen. Such state is an antipode of the totalitarian state, these two concepts mutually exclude each other.