In the LONG PERIOD the enterprise has opportunity not only to buy bigger quantity of raw materials and materials or to employ bigger number of workers. It can carry out and capital investments, i.e. to increase the sizes of fixed capital. Therefore in the long period it is considered that all costs are variables.
SPECIALIZATION of the ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL. Small firms are not capable to use work of the specialist manager directly. At the small enterprise the specialist in problems of sale can be compelled to divide the time between various areas of administrative activity – for example, marketing, management of a manpower and finance. Expansion of scale of operations will mean that the marketing specialist will be able to devote completely himself to control of sale and distribution of production. Eventually it will lead to increase of efficiency and decrease in costs of production of a unit of production.
the purchased materials used in the course of production (works, services) for ensuring normal technological process and for packing of production or spent for other production needs (carrying out tests, control, the contents, repair and operation of the equipment, buildings, constructions, other fixed assets and other), and also spare parts for repair of the equipment, wear of tools, adaptations, stock and other means of labor;
The satisfaction of requirement of the enterprises, organizations and citizens in production is production – technical appointment and consumer goods, works and services with high consumer qualities.
Returnable production wastes are understood as the remains of raw materials, materials, semi-finished products, heat carriers and other types of material resources formed in the course of production (works, services), the consumer qualities of an initial resource (chemical or physical properties) which lost in whole or in part.
In the INSTANT PERIOD – all costs are constants: the product is put on the market therefore it is already impossible to change the volume of its production (it already is), to change costs of the enterprise (the suffered costs already in the past).